Chicago Style Dissertation Reference

Go to Notes and Bibliography: Sample Citations

The following examples illustrate the author-date system. Each example of a reference list entry is accompanied by an example of a corresponding in-text citation. For more details and many more examples, see chapter 15 of The Chicago Manual of Style. For examples of the same citations using the notes and bibliography system, follow the Notes and Bibliography link above.

Book

Reference list entries (in alphabetical order)

In-text citations

For more examples, see 15.40–45 in The Chicago Manual of Style.

Chapter or other part of an edited book

In the reference list, include the page range for the chapter or part. In the text, cite specific pages.

Reference list entry

In-text citation

In some cases, you may want to cite the collection as a whole instead.

Reference list entry

In-text citation

For more details, see 15.36 and 15.42 in The Chicago Manual of Style.

Translated book

Reference list entry

In-text citation

E-book

For books consulted online, include a URL or the name of the database in the reference list entry. For other types of e-books, name the format. If no fixed page numbers are available, cite a section title or a chapter or other number in the text, if any (or simply omit).

Reference list entries (in alphabetical order)

In-text citations

Journal article

In the reference list, include the page range for the whole article. In the text, cite specific page numbers. For articles consulted online, include a URL or the name of the database in the reference list entry. Many journal articles list a DOI (Digital Object Identifier). A DOI forms a permanent URL that begins https://doi.org/. This URL is preferable to the URL that appears in your browser’s address bar.

Reference list entries (in alphabetical order)

In-text citations

Journal articles often list many authors, especially in the sciences. If there are four or more authors, list up to ten in the reference list; in the text, list only the first, followed by et al. (“and others”). For more than ten authors (not shown here), list the first seven in the reference list, followed by et al.

Reference list entry

In-text citation

For more examples, see 15.46–49 in The Chicago Manual of Style.

News or magazine article

Articles from newspapers or news sites, magazines, blogs, and the like are cited similarly. In the reference list, it can be helpful to repeat the year with sources that are cited also by month and day. Page numbers, if any, can be cited in the text but are omitted from a reference list entry. If you consulted the article online, include a URL or the name of the database.

Reference list entries (in alphabetical order)

In-text citation

Readers’ comments are cited in the text but omitted from a reference list.

In-text citation

For more examples, see 15.49 (newspapers and magazines) and 15.51 (blogs) in The Chicago Manual of Style.

Book review

Reference list entry

In-text citation

Interview

Reference list entry

In-text citation

Thesis or dissertation

Reference list entry

In-text citation

Website content

It is often sufficient simply to describe web pages and other website content in the text (“As of May 1, 2017, Yale’s home page listed . . .”). If a more formal citation is needed, it may be styled like the examples below. For a source that does not list a date of publication or revision, use n.d. (for “no date”) in place of the year and include an access date.

Reference list entries (in alphabetical order)

In-text citations

For more examples, see 15.50–52 in The Chicago Manual of Style. For multimedia, including live performances, see 15.57.

Social media content

Citations of content shared through social media can usually be limited to the text (as in the first example below). If a more formal citation is needed, a reference list entry may be appropriate. In place of a title, quote up to the first 160 characters of the post. Comments are cited in reference to the original post.

Text

Reference list entries (in alphabetical order)

In-text citations

Personal communication

Personal communications, including email and text messages and direct messages sent through social media, are usually cited in the text only; they are rarely included in a reference list.

In-text citation

This guide is a general overview of how to cite common types of sources using the two versions of Chicago style for student writing.

The Chicago Manual of Style consists of two basic documentation styles:

Notes-Bibliography (NB)is common in art history, theology, history, and other humanities disciplines

NB format uses footnotes and endnotes with a bibliography at the end of the document to record sources

Author-Date (AD) is sometimes used in the social sciences

In the Author-Date system, sources are cited in the text, usually in parentheses, by author's last name and date of publication and expanded upon in a list of references at the end of the document, where full bibliographic information is provided.

  • Chicago Manual of Style
    The Chicago Manual of Style Online is completely searchable and easy to use, providing quick answers to your style and editing questions. The Chicago Manual of Style Online also provides convenient Tools, such as sample forms, letters, and style sheets.
Categories: 1

0 Replies to “Chicago Style Dissertation Reference”

Leave a comment

L'indirizzo email non verrà pubblicato. I campi obbligatori sono contrassegnati *